Ultrasonic Radar


General Description

This is a very interesting project with many practical applications in security and alarm systems for homes, shops and cars. It consists of a set of ultrasonic receiver and transmitter which operate at the same frequency. When something moves in the area covered by the circuit the circuits fine balance is disturbed and the alarm is triggered. The circuit is very sensitive and can be adjusted to reset itself automatically or to stay triggered till it is reset manually after an alarm.

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Supply  Characteristics

Working voltage: 12V DC
Current: 30 mA

 

How it Works

As it has already been stated the circuit consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and a receiver both of which work at the same frequency. They use ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers as output and input devices respectively and their frequency of operation is determined by the particular devices in use.

The transmitter is built around two NAND gates of the four found in IC3 which are used here wired as inverters and in the particular circuit they form a multivibrator the output of which drives the transducer. The trimmer P2 adjusts the output frequency of the transmitter and for greater efficiency it should be made the same as the frequency of resonance of the transducers in use. The receiver similarly uses a transducer to receive the signals that are reflected back to it the output of which is amplified by the transistor TR3, and IC1 which is a 741 op-amp. The output of IC1 is taken to the non inverting input of IC2 the amplification factor of which is adjusted by means of P1. The circuit is adjusted in such a way as to stay in balance as long as the input frequency is the same as the output frequency of the transmitter. If there is some movement in the area covered by the ultrasonic emission the signal

that is reflected back to the receiver becomes distorted and the circuit is thrown out of balance. The output of IC2 changes abruptly and the Schmitt trigger circuit which is built around the remaining two gates in IC3 is triggered. This drives the output transistors TR1,2 which in turn give a signal to the alarm system or if there is a relay connected to the circuit, in series with the collector of TR1, it becomes activated. The circuit works from 9-12 VDC and can be used with batteries or a power supply.

View schematic

Construction

Device is built on a printed circuit board. 

View PCB

View PCB

View PCB

Adjustments

Connect the power supply across points 1 (+) and 2 (-) of the p.c. board and put P1 at roughly its middle position. Turn then P2 slowly till the LED lights when you move your fingers slightly in front of the transducers. If you have a frequency counter then you can make a much more accurate adjustment of the circuit. Connect the frequency counter across the transducer and adjust P2 till the frequency of the oscillator is exactly the same as the resonant frequency of the transducer. Adjust then P1 for maximum sensitivity. Connecting together pins 7 & 8 on the p.c. board will make the circuit to stay triggered till it is manually reset after an alarm. This can be very useful if you want to know that there was an attempt to enter in the place which are protected by the radar.

If it does not work

Check your work for possible dry joints, bridges across adjacent tracks or soldering flux residues that usually cause problems. Check again all the external connections to and from the circuit to see if there is a mistake there.

See that there are no components missing or inserted in the wrong places.

Make sure that all the polarized components have been soldered the right way round. Make sure that the supply has the correct voltage and is connected the right way round to your circuit. Check your project for faulty or damaged components.

Components

R1 =  180 K C1, 6 = 10uF/16V TR1, 2, 3 = BC547 , BC548
R2 =  12 K C2 = 47uF/16V P1 = 10 K trimmer
R3, 8 =  47K C3 = 4,7 pF P2 = 47K trimmer
R4 =  3,9 K C4, 7 = 1 nF IC1, 2 = 741 OP-AMP
R5, 6, 16 =  10K C5 = 10nF IC3 = 4093 C-MOS
R7, 10, 12, 14, 17 =  100 K C8, 11 = 4,7 uF/16V R = TRANSDUCER 40KHz
R9, 11 =  1 M C9 = 22F/16V T = TRANSDUCER 40KHz
R13, 15 =  3,3K C10 = 100 nF D1, 2, 3, 4 = 1N4148
C12 = 2,2 uF/16V
C13 = 3,3nF
C14 = 47nF

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